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Indonesia - Ports

Currently, in total there are over 1000 ports across the archipelago. They can be categorised into:     

  •  Commercial ports     
  •  Non-commercial Ports     
  •  Special ports, coal terminals and fishing harbours

  Commercial ports :- Commercial Port serve international and domestic sea transportation. They are used mostly for commercial purposes that include container, cargo, car and multipurpose terminals. These ports are managed by four state-owned port operators known as the Pelindo I, II (or Indonesia Port Corporation/IPC), III and IV (“Pelindos”). In total, they manage around 111 ports in Indonesia. From the 111 ports, around 25 ports serve as a hub for international transportation. These ports play an important part in Indonesia’s goal to become a hub between international and domestic sea transportation. The largest Indonesian ports as of today are located in: · Belawan in Medan · Tanjung Priok in Jakarta · Tanjung Perak in Surabaya · Makassar in South Sulawesi

For eastern Indonesia, Pelindo II is planning to develop a port in Sorong in West Papua. It aims to be the trading gateway between Indonesia and Australia and Papua New Guinea.

Non-commercial ports :- Non-commercial ports are relatively small in size and are not equipped with adequate port facilities for heavy trading activities. Based on data in 2009, there are approximately 5337 non-commercial ports in the region. They are managed by local government, regional owned port operators or private sector companies. In the case of private sector managed ports, they are usually also given licenses by central or local government to operate special ports for the purpose of transporting goods/commodities between the port and transhipment points.

Special Purpose Ports :- Special Purpose ports are mostly dedicated for transport of commodities such as oil and gas, coal, cement, fisheries and timber. Currently it is estimated that there are 177 special ports across Indonesia.

Pelindos as the main port operators –

Most of the busiest ports in Indonesia are operated by the Pelindos – whether independently or through joint ventures with a private operator. The total net revenue of the four Pelindos in 2013 represented approximately 0.14% of Indonesian GDP with total combined revenue of USD 1.24 billion. This means that the Pelindos are a necessary link in the realisation of the 2008 Shipping Law, as well as the Maritime Fulcrum objective.

Pelindo I :- 

Pelindo I, operating in the Sumatra Island, is accountable for 15 ports across the middle to the northern areas. Pelindo I covers the north half of Sumatera, the Provinces within Pelindo I territorial area being Nangroe Aceh Darussalam/Aceh, North Sumatera, Riau and Riau Islands with the Special Economic Zone status of Batam of particular importance. The area served by Pelindo I has a hinterland that is well developed with production of CPO, rubber, oil and gas, agricultural output, mining, and some tourism. The total port traffic for Pelindo I shows a significant trend between 2009 and 2013. For container traffic, it shows a positive CAGR with 7.95% between 2009 and 2013 with 983,085 to 1,335,139 TEUs.

Pelindo I







Ship Traffic (call)






-1.59 %

Container Traffic (Call)






7.95 %

Passenger Traffic (pax)






3.20 %

The Belawan port is the leading port under the jurisdiction of Pelindo I. It operates terminal services for dry bulk, liquid bulk, stevedoring for container and cargo, and shipping services. The port also operates a subsidiary under Pelindo that currently functions as the main International and Domestic container terminal in Surabaya called the Belawan International Container Terminal (BICT). BICT has accounted a CAGR of 11.6% of its container throughput between 2009 and 2013 (581,210 to 900,395 TEUs).

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